Maslov Dmitriy Georgievich, Candidate of economic sciences, associate professor, sub-department of economics and world economy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), maslovDG@mail.ru
Kizon Ekaterina Andreevna, Postgraduate student, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction
(28 G. Titova street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Background. The modern economical system is defined by the large spread of shadow economy, which determines the importance of its conceptual and practical analysis. The article is devoted to the problem, topicality of which is based on the imperfection of the conceptual framework, disagreement between interpretations of the contents of “shadow economy” along with conciousness of the necessity of its conceptual analysis due to the wide spread of the phenomenon in the presentday world. The goal of the study is to analyze the essence of the concept of shadow economy, identify the origins of the phenomenon and discover the influence of shadow economy on the economy of present-day Russia.
Materials and methods. Implementation of research objectives was achieved on the basis of the analysis of the fundamental works on economics written by Russian and foreign authors, as well as materials from scientific publications. In these materials and publications the authors found various, occasionally contrary opinions on the essence of the concept of shadow economy and its role in the country’s national economy. Special attention in the study was given to the works by R. Coase, H. de Soto, F. Schneider, E. Feige, D. North, V. V. Radaev, V. Tambovtsev, U. V. Latov and V. V. Kolesnikov. Moreover, the uses the data collected by the World Bank and works by John C. Gannon, the ex-chairman of US National Intelligence Council. Methodology includes the methods of economic analysis, including statistical, comparative, graphing and systematic methods, which allow the characterization of shadow economy from various approaches to identification of its concept.
Results. The authors showed the role and position of shadow economy in the system of economical relations, revealed and analyzed the reasons behind shadow economy activities development in Russia, defined and structured the approaches to identification of shadow economy, highlighted the main forms of non-observed economy and showed the influence of shadow economy on the economy of present-day Russia.
Conclusions. The study allows to understand the reasons behind the development of shadow economy in Russia, and shows that shadow economy in its essence is a part of economy as a whole but became an institurional phenomenon due to the imperfections in legal system. The results show that the distinctive feature of shadow economy as an institutional phenomenon is that it can be described as a complex introversial system and it is a priori impossible to define the exact functioning aims for a state mechanism designed to counter shadow economy in specific areas and economic sectors. The authors conclude that due to different nature of various forms of shadow economy the state influence must be differentiated as well.
shadow economy, institutional phenomenon, economy criminalism, shadow economy hierarchy, approaches to define shadow economy, shadow sector.
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